Sofia, Bulgarian Sofiya, capital of Bulgaria. It is arranged close to the land focus of the Balkans area, in the Sofia Basin, a troughlike valley in the western piece of the nation.
The Serdi (Sardi), a Thracian clan, built up a settlement in the area in the eighth century BCE. This people group was vanquished not long after 29 BCE by the Romans, who named it Serdica (Greek: Sardica). It thrived during the rule of the head Trajan (98–117) and achieved its most noteworthy stature under the sovereign Constantine I the Great; in 342 or 343 it was the site of a significant gathering of Christian diocesans, the Council of Sardica. From the fourth century it was a piece of the Western Roman Empire, however with the decay of Rome go to Byzantium; it was pillaged by Attila and the Huns in 441–447. During the sixth century Byzantine impact expanded under the ruler Justinian, and the reestablished Church of St. Sofia, which later gave the town its name, makes due from this period. In 809 the Bulgarian khan Krum held onto the town and joined it in the Bulgarian state; it was given the Slav name Sredets (Greek: Triaditsa). It was under Byzantine standard from 1018 until 1185, when the second Bulgarian Empire was set up.
Sofia tumbled to the Turks in 1382; the Ottoman legislative head of Rumelia took up living arrangement there, and the town step by step procured an unmistakable Oriental appearance. It was freed from Ottoman standard by Russian troops on January 4, 1878, and was assigned the Bulgarian capital on April 3, 1879.
After World War II the city was additionally industrialized. The main businesses are building, metallurgy, sustenance handling, and the assembling of materials and apparel. Printing is significant; the elastic, footwear, furniture and carpentry, and substance enterprises are additionally very much spoken to.
An agrarian zone described by foods grown from the ground developing and by dairy cultivating encompasses Sofia, and it is associated with neighboring towns by streets. Sofia is likewise the focal point of Bulgarian air and rail traffic. Nearby vehicle is served by tramways, trolleybuses, and transports, while a few link lifts rise the neighboring Vitosha Mountains.
Among the numerous instructive organizations in Sofia are the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and the University of Sofia (1888), the most established foundation of higher learning in Bulgaria. The city likewise contains the Cyril and Methodius National Library, the Ivan Vazov National Theater and Opera House, a galactic observatory, and various exhibition halls. Notwithstanding the reestablished St. George, Boyana, and St. Sofia chapels, chronicled landmarks incorporate two mosques, one lodging a fine archeological accumulation, and the St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, raised to celebrate the appreciation of the Bulgarian individuals to the Russian deliverers of 1878. Pop. (2011) 1,291,591.