Manama, Arabic Al-Manāmah, capital and biggest city of the state and emirate of Bahrain. It lies at the upper east tip of Bahrain island, in the Persian Gulf. Around one-fifth of the emirate’s populace lives in the city. First referenced in Islamic annals about AD 1345, it was taken by the Portuguese (1521) and by the Persians (1602). It has been held, with brief intrusions, by the decision Āl Khalīfah line since 1783. Since Bahrain finished up a progression of settlements (1861–1914) putting the nation under expanding British insurance, there was a British political specialist positioned at Manama from 1900, subject to the political occupant for the Persian Gulf, whose base camp were long at Bushire, Iran. In 1946 the residency was moved to Manama, where it stayed until the city turned into the capital of autonomous Bahrain in 1971.
Long a significant business focus of the northern Persian Gulf, the conventional economy depended on pearling, angling, boatbuilding, and import exchange. Harbor offices were poor; sea vessels needed to stay in the open roadstead 2–4 miles (3–6 km) seaward. The revelation of oil on Bahrain (1932) altered the city’s economy and appearance, with the development of numerous advanced structures. Manama created as an exchange, money related, and business focus; it is the seat of various banks. The central command of the Bahrain Petroleum Company (BAPCO), be that as it may, are at ʿAwālī, in the focal point of Bahrain island. Manama was pronounced a free port in 1958, and the new deepwater port offices of Mīnāʾ Salmān, in the ensured cove of al-Qulayʿah Inlet, southeast of the developed region of the city, were opened in 1962. With capacity and refrigeration offices, and hardware for docking and fix of enormous oceangoing vessels, it is presently a standout amongst the most significant ports of the Persian Gulf. The island and town of Al-Muḥarraq, Bahrain’s second biggest network, lies simply upper east; the two urban communities are connected by a thoroughfare 1.5 miles (2.5 km) long. Pop. (2001) 143,035.
Honolulu, capital and chief port of Hawaii, U.S., seat of Honolulu area. A cutting edge city, it reaches out around 10 miles (16 km) along the southeastern shore of Oahu Island and 4 miles (6 km) inland over a plain into the lower regions of the Koolau Range. It is the junction of trans-Pacific dispatching and air courses, the focal point of interisland administrations, and the business and modern focal point of the state. The city-region (zone 597 square miles [1,545 square km]) involves all of Oahu and some distant islets, which have a region total of just 3 square miles (8 square km) yet reach out for in excess of 1,300 miles (2,100 km) and comprise the Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge. It is regulated as a solitary element and has around 80 percent of the state’s populace.
Hawaiian legend shows a settlement at Honolulu (signifying “secured inlet”) in 1100. Disregarded by Captain James Cook and other early wayfarers, the harbor with its outlet through the reef of Nuuanu Stream and shielded by Sand Island was entered by Captain William Brown in 1794. After 1820 Honolulu accepted first significance in the islands and prospered as a base for sandalwood dealers and whalers. A Russian gathering touched base there in 1816, and the port was later involved by the British (1843) and the French (1849) yet was come back to King Kamehameha III, who on August 31, 1850, authoritatively proclaimed Honolulu a city and the capital of his kingdom (Honolulu had been the true capital since 1845). In December 1941 the city and the contiguous Pearl Harbor maritime military complex went under Japanese ethereal assault. Honolulu turned into a prime organizing zone for the rest of World War II, a position it held during the Korean War and until the finish of the Indochina (Vietnam) struggle in 1973. Military use remains a significant wellspring of pay.
Jaipur, city, capital of Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It is arranged in the east-focal piece of the state, generally equidistant from Alwar (upper east) and Ajmer (southwest). It is Rajasthan’s most-crowded city.
A walled town encompassed (but toward the south) by slopes, the city was established in 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh to supplant adjacent Amber (presently Amer, a piece of Jaipur) as the capital of the august territory of Jaipur (established by the Rajputs in the twelfth century CE). Jaipur developed significantly in size in the late twentieth and mid 21st hundreds of years, multiplying its populace somewhere in the range of 1991 and 2011. It has a blended Hindu-Muslim populace. The city was the site of various besieging assaults in the mid 21st century, with mosques and Hindu sanctuaries being targets.
Jaipur is a well known visitor goal and a business exchange focus with real street, rail, and air associations. Ventures incorporate designing and metalworking, hand-loom weaving, refining, and the assembling of glass, hosiery, rugs, covers, shoes, and medications. Jaipur’s popular expressions and specialties incorporate the creation of adornments, finish, metalwork, and printed materials, just as stone, marble, and ivory cutting.
Siĕmréab, additionally spelled Siem Reap, city, northwestern Cambodia. It lies along the Siĕmréab River and is connected to Phnom Penh, the national capital, and neighboring zones by a national parkway. The town has a pharmaceutical generation focus, a hoard rearing office, agrarian apparatus workshops, a crocodile ranch, and a global air terminal. Only north of Siĕmréab are 40 square miles (105 square km) of remnants of the premodern Khmer capital, Angkor (or Angkor Thom), which incorporates the amazing sanctuary complex of Angkor Wat. Pop. (1998) 83,715; (2008) 168,662.
Bucharest, Romanian București, city and region, the financial, managerial, and social focus of Romania. It lies amidst the Romanian plain, on the banks of the Dâmbovița, a little northern tributary of the Danube.
Albeit archeological unearthings have uncovered proof of settlements going back to the Neolithic Period, the principal composed appearance of the name București dates from 1459, when it was recorded in a marked report of Vlad III (the Impaler), the leader of Walachia. Vlad III manufactured the stronghold of Bucharest—the first of a large number—with the point of keeping down the Turks who were undermining the presence of the Walachian state.
Under the Ottoman suzerainty that was in the long run set up, Bucharest grew quickly as the principle financial focal point of Walachia, turning into the capital in 1659. The names of certain boulevards—Strada Blănarilor (“Furriers’ Lane”), Strada Șelarilor (“Saddlemakers’ Lane”), Strada Șepcarilor (“Capmakers’ Lane”)— vouch for the rise of society associations, and, during the rule (1688–1714) of Prince Constantin Brâncoveanu, enormous lanes were assembled.
After 1716, government was no longer in the hands of local rulers yet was controlled rather by Phanariotes (i.e., Greeks starting in the Phanar region of Constantinople). In 1821 Bucharest was the focal point of a mainstream uprising, driven by the Walachian national legend Tudor Vladimirescu, which finished Phanariote rule. Once more, in 1848 and 1859, municipal agitation in the city had an influence in achieving the association of Walachia and Moldavia, followed in 1862 by the announcement of Bucharest as the capital of the Romanian state. These occasions, combined with a land change in 1864 and the last accomplishment of national autonomy in the war of 1877–78, gave a solid driving force to the financial improvement of both the nation and its capital city.
After World War I, Bucharest reinforced its situation as the most significant city of an enormously expanded nation. Further development occurred after World War II, and, following the nationalization of business and industry starting in 1948, this development was portrayed by enormous scale ventures and a checked structural consistency.
The cutting edge city is described by various squares from which avenues and streets emanate. The two boss avenues, running generally parallel through the focal point of the city, are Calea Victoriei and Bulevardul Magheru. Bulevardul Unirii, in the past called, under socialism, the “Street of the Victory of Socialism,” was incomprehensibly extended during the 1980s under the despot Nicolae Ceaușescu and was flanked by such structures as the palatial marble House of the People (Casa Poporului, presently the Palace of the Parliament). Around 25,000 sections of land (10,000 hectares) of old Bucharest were demolished to prepare for the new castle and amazing lane.
Republic Square—with the royal residence corridor and the authentic Crețulescu Church (1722)— is a standout amongst the most wonderful squares of the city. It is connected to Revolution Square (some time ago Palace Square), which is encompassed by a monumental gathering of authoritative, political, and social structures including the Romanian Athenaeum, remarkable for its segmented exterior, and the previous regal royal residence (presently the National Art Museum).
The city has an enormous number of houses of worship, normally little, in Byzantine style. Notwithstanding the Curtea Veche (Old Court) church (1559), the congregation of the previous Antim Monastery (1715) and Stavropoleos church (1724) are of significant building interest.
The most significant places for advanced education are the Polytechnical University of Bucharest (established 1818) and the University of Bucharest (established 1864 from organizations dating to 1694). Also, there are a few foundations in the two expressions and sciences, just as various research organizations. Bucharest has three focal libraries (the Library of the Romanian Academy, the National Library, and the Central University Library) and an enormous number of open library units.
A large number of the city’s theaters—for instance, the National Theater “I.L. Caragiale” and the Theater of Opera and Ballet of Romania—have long conventions. Bucharest is additionally the seat of a national philharmonic ensemble. Among the numerous exhibition halls are the Museum of the History of the City of Bucharest and the Art Museum of Romania, the last keeping up enormous accumulations of national, European, and East Asian workmanship. An exceptionally unique ethnographic accumulation, the Village Museum (1936), is comprised of laborer houses brought from different pieces of the nation.
Fabricates incorporate designing items, remarkably machine devices and rural hardware, just as electrical and car gear, transports, trolleybuses, and a wide assortment of different products, including shopper merchandise. The city is served by a universal airplane terminal at Otopeni and the littler Băneasa Airport. Pop. (2007 est.) 1,931,838.
Kraków, likewise spelled Cracow, city and capital of Małopolskie województwo (region), southern Poland, lying on the two sides of the upper Vistula River. One of the biggest urban areas in Poland, it is known principally for its terrific memorable engineering and social authority; UNESCO assigned its old town region a World Heritage site in 1978. Its commercial center, Rynek Główny (Main Square), has existed since the thirteenth century, and an advanced arranged zone is spread out on the site of past fortresses. Pop. (2011) 757,611.
Kraków was the home of the Wiślanie clan (Vistulans), who involved Małopolska (Little Poland) until the tenth century. From 988 to 990 Mieszko I, ruler of Poland, joined the southern and northern domains to frame an amazing kingdom, and his child, Bolesław I (the Brave), later made Kraków the seat of a Polish church district. The city extended quickly as an exchange focus, turning into the capital of one of Poland’s real territories in 1138. It was crushed by Tatar intrusions during the thirteenth century yet was rapidly remade, accepting “Magdeburg rights,” which comprised of a city constitution, in 1257.
When King Władysław I (the Short) rejoined Poland, he made Kraków his capital in 1320, after which the rulers of Poland were generally delegated in Wawel Castle and buried in Wawel Cathedral. All through the fourteenth century Kraków filled in as Poland’s financial and political focus and as a noteworthy exchanging point among England and Hungary. Simultaneously, it developed into the country’s scholarly and social locus, as prove by one of its primary enduring medieval structures, the Jagiellonian University. Established as the Academy of Kraków by Casimir III (the Great) in 1364, the college picked up renown consistently, drawing researchers, specialists, and researchers from over the landmass; it is the second most established college in focal Europe
Agra, city, western Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It lies in the Indo-Gangetic Plain on the Yamuna (Jumna) River around 125 miles (200 km) southeast of Delhi.
There was an early reference to an “Agravana” in the antiquated Sanskrit epic Mahabharata, and Ptolemy is said to have called the site “Agra.” The city was established by Sultan Sikandar of the Lodī tradition in the mid sixteenth century to be the capital of the Delhi sultanate. Agra additionally filled in as the Mughal capital during certain times of that realm. In the late eighteenth century the city fell progressively to the Jats, the Marathas, the Mughals, the leader of Gwalior, and, at long last, the British in 1803. It was the capital of Agra (later North-Western) territory from 1833 to 1868 and was one of the fundamental focuses of the Indian Mutiny (1857–58).
Agra is best known for the Taj Mahal (seventeenth century), assigned an UNESCO World Heritage site in 1983. A mind boggling tomb, the Taj Mahal is frequently viewed as the world’s best case of Mughal engineering. The Mughal ruler Shah Jahān fabricated it for his preferred spouse, Mumtāz Maḥal, in the mid-seventeenth century. Agra Fort (sixteenth century), called the Red Fort for its huge red sandstone dividers, was worked by the ruler Akbar; it contains the Pearl Mosque (Moti Masjid; seventeenth century), built of white marble, and a castle, the Jahangiri Mahal. The fortification was likewise assigned a World Heritage site in 1983.
Agra is a noteworthy street and rail intersection and a business and modern focus known for its cowhide products, cut stone, and handwoven floor coverings. The travel industry is a main consideration in the city’s economy. The city is the seat of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University (in the past Agra University), established in 1927. Suburbia of Agra contain the state mental medical clinic and Dayalbagh, a province of the Radha Soami Satsang religious group (established in the city in 1861).
Numerous religious and social celebrations are held in Agra. Janamashtami remembers the birthday of Lord Krishna. The yearly Taj Mahotsav, a 10-day expressions, specialties, and music jamboree, as a rule in February, is held in Shilpagram, an artworks town near the Taj Mahal.
The area around Agra comprises for the most part of a level plain, with slopes in the outrageous southwest. The area is watered by the Yamuna River and the Agra Canal. Millet, grain, wheat, and cotton are among the yields developed. The left Mughal city of Fatehpur Sikri is around 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Agra city. Pop. (2001) city, 1,275,134; urban agglom., 1,331,339; (2011) city, 1,585,704; urban agglom., 1,760,285.
Jerba, additionally spelled Jarbah or Djerba, island arranged in the Gulf of Gabes on the Mediterranean Sea, situated off the Tunisian territory, to which it is associated by an interstate right around 4 miles (6 km) long. Jerba island is around 17 miles (27 km) long by 16 miles (26 km) wide and has a territory of 197 square miles (510 square km).
The island was referred to antiquated geographers as the “place that is known for the lotus eaters” and was initially settled by the Romans. In the wake of being vanquished by the Arabs in 655 and made a reliance of Tunis and Kairouan (Al-Qayrawān), it go forward and backward between Sicilian, Norman, and Ḥafṣid control from the twelfth to the fifteenth century. After a few fruitless endeavors by the Spanish to take the island in the sixteenth century, it go under Ottoman control until the entry of the French in the late nineteenth century. Jerba island, presently a piece of Tunisia, is noted for its plantations (particularly dates and olives), angling (wipes and clams), woolens and covers, and earthenware. Its fine shorelines and global air terminal have additionally made it a prevalent vacationer resort. Ḥawmat al-Sūq is the key town and boss market focus, and Ajīm is the principle port. The populace is for the most part Amazigh (Berber) in source; there additionally remains a segment of the island’s once noteworthy Jewish people group, which was one of the most seasoned on the planet. A little extent of the populace has a place with the Kharijite group of Islam. Pop. (2004) 139,517.
Suzhou, Wade-Giles romanization Su-chou, additionally called Wuxian, regular Soochow, city, southern Jiangsu sheng (area), eastern China. It is arranged on the southern segment of the Grand Canal on a by and large level, low-lying plain between the eminent Lake Tai toward the west and the immense Shanghai city toward the east. Encompassed by waterways on each of the four sides and confounded by minor channels, the city controls the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) delta zone north and upper east of Lake Tai. Suzhou is a position of extraordinary magnificence, with lakes, streams, lakes, world-renowned greenhouses, and a string of picturesque slopes along the eastern shore of the lake. It likewise lies at the focal point of the absolute most extravagant horticultural land in China. Pop. (2002 est.) 1,215,967; (2007 est.) urban agglom., 1,650,000.
The customary establishing date of Suzhou is 514 BCE, when a city with the inexact limits of the present-the very first moment was built up by the leader of the territory of Wu throughout the Spring and Autumn (Chunqiu) period (770–476 BCE) of the Dong (Eastern) Zhou tradition. Under the Qin administration (221–207 BCE) it turned into the seat of an area, Wuxian, and of the Kuaiji commandery, which controlled a large portion of present-day Jiangsu south of the Yangtze and Zhejiang territory. The name Suzhou dates from 589 CE, when the Sui line (581–618) vanquished southern China.
With the structure of the Grand Canal, Suzhou turned into a managerial and business place for a zone that quickly formed into the real rice-surplus locale of China. Under the Song (960–1279) and the Yuan (1206–1368) lines, Suzhou kept on prospering. In the thirteenth century the Venetian voyager Marco Polo visited it and remarked on its brilliant qualities. Wusong River and Suzhou Creek gave the city direct access to the ocean, and for some time Suzhou was a port for remote transportation, until the silting of the Yangtze River delta and the water system and recovery works that went on persistently blocked access. Under the Ming (1368–1644) and early Qing (1644–1911/12) administrations, Suzhou achieved the pinnacle of its flourishing. The home of numerous well off landowning families, it turned into a middle for grant and expressions of the human experience. Wellsprings of the city’s riches incorporated the silk business and weaving. It additionally filled in as a significant wellspring of business capital and a fund and banking focus.
From 1860 to 1863, during the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64), Suzhou was involved by the Taiping pioneer Li Xiucheng. Despite the fact that it was one of only a handful couple of spots in which Taiping change arrangements appear to have been successfully completed, the city was, by and by, generally decimated. It was reestablished in the late nineteenth century, however its business matchless quality was then tested by adjacent Shanghai. Under the Treaty of Shimonoseki (finished up among China and Japan in 1895), Suzhou was opened for outside exchange however without huge outcomes. Before World War II the territory was antagonistically influenced by outside challenge, and the silk business, the greater part of which was on a little handiwork scale, was hard hit. At about that time some advanced production lines fabricating glossy silks and cotton textures were set up, and an enormous electric-control creating plant was set up; nonetheless, until the episode of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937, there was minimal present day industry. Suzhou was involved by the Japanese from 1937 until the war’s end in 1945.
Dominican Republic, nation of the West Indies that possesses the eastern 66% of Hispaniola, the second biggest island of the Greater Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea. Haiti, additionally a free republic, involves the western third of the island. The Dominican Republic’s shores are washed by the Caribbean toward the south and the Atlantic Ocean toward the north. Between the eastern tip of the island and Puerto Rico streams the Mona Passage, a channel around 80 miles (130 km) wide. The Turks and Caicos Islands are found exactly 90 miles (145 km) toward the north, and Colombia lies around 300 miles (500 km) toward the south. The republic’s region, which incorporates such neighboring islands as Saona, Beata, and Catalina, is about a large portion of the size of Portugal. The national capital is Santo Domingo, on the southern coast.
The Dominican Republic shares much for all intents and purpose with the nations of Latin America (with which it is regularly assembled), and a few journalists have alluded to the nation as a microcosm of that locale. Dominicans have encountered political and common issue, ethnic pressures, send out situated blasts and busts, and significant lots of military principle, including a Haitian occupation (1822–44), the onerous autocracy of Rafael Trujillo (1930–61), and military intercessions by the United States (1916–24 and 1965–66). In any case, the country’s inconveniences have could not hope to compare with those of neighboring Haiti. The two nations have for some time been vital on account of their nearness to the United States and their situations on significant ocean courses prompting the Caribbean and the Panama Canal.