Sousse, additionally spelled Sūsah or Sousa, town situated in east-focal Tunisia. It is a significant port and business focus that began as the Phoenician settlement of Hadrumetum. Utilized by Hannibal as his base during the Second Punic War (218–201 BCE), Sousse changed its devotion during the Third Punic War (149–146 BCE) and therefore picked up the status of a free town. It declined under Arab control yet was restored by the Aghlabid leaders of Kairouan (Al-Qayrawān) in the ninth century, whose port it stayed until the attacks of the Bedouin Arabs in the eleventh century. Sousse was restored as an unmistakable port under the French protectorate (1881–1955); during World War II, the town and its port were truly harmed.
Recreation of the town, particularly since the 1960s, has seen another accentuation on the travel industry, including the development of a marina at Port El-Kantaoui. Sousse is by and by a significant exchange focus, and agrarian action has declined for angling and the travel industry. Major financial interests incorporate sardine canning, car parts production and gathering, olive oil preparing, and cotton material processing. The University of Sousse (1986), situated in the town, offers courses in various resources. The old town, encased by bulwarks that date from the Byzantine time frame and from the Aghlabid line, contains the Great Mosque (established in the ninth century by the Aghlabid emir Abū al-ʿAbbās Muḥammad) and ribāṭ (religious community stronghold; dating from the ninth century), the souks (commercial centers), and some Muslim quarters; the old city was assigned an UNESCO World Heritage site in 1988. The town is likewise the site of broad mausoleums going back to the sizeable Christian nearness in the third century CE.
The district wherein Sousse is arranged includes a daintily undulating beach front plain where olive trees and esparto grass are developed. Its fundamental focuses, notwithstanding Sousse, are Monastir (Al-Munastīr) and Mahdia (Al-Mahdiyyah). Sousse is connected by street and rail to Tunis, Sfax (Ṣafāqis), Gabès (Qābis), and Gafsa (Qafṣah). Pop. (2004) 173,047.
Amman, Arabic ʿAmmān, scriptural Hebrew Rabbath Ammon, old Greek Philadelphia, capital and biggest city of Jordan. It is the living arrangement of the lord and the seat of government. The city is based on moving slopes at the eastern limit of the ʿAjlūn Mountains, on the little, halfway enduring Wadi ʿAmmān and its tributaries.
Amman’s focal point of settlement since forever has been the little high triangular level (present day Mount Al-Qalʿah) only north of the channel. Strengthened settlements have existed there since remote relic; the soonest remains are of the Chalcolithic Age (c. 4000–c. 3000 BCE). Later the city ended up capital of the Ammonites, a Semitic people habitually referenced in the Bible; the scriptural and present day names both follow back to “Ammon.” The “regal city” taken by King David’s general Joab (II Samuel 12:26) was most likely the acropolis on the level. Lord David sent Uriah the Hittite to his demise fighting before the dividers of the city with the goal that he may wed his better half, Bathsheba (II Samuel 11); the episode is likewise a piece of Muslim legends. The number of inhabitants in the Ammonite urban areas was quite diminished under King David. David’s child Solomon (prospered tenth century BCE) had Ammonite spouses in his collection of mistresses, one of whom turned into the mother of Rehoboam, Solomon’s successor as ruler of Judah.
Amman declined in later hundreds of years. In the third century BCE it was vanquished by Egypt’s King Ptolemy II Philadelphus (ruled 285–246 BCE), and he renamed it Philadelphia after himself; the name was held through Byzantine and Roman occasions. Philadelphia was a city of the Decapolis (Greek: “Ten Cities”), a Hellenistic group of the first century BCE–second century CE. In 106 CE it was incorporated into the Roman territory of Arabia and modified by the Romans; some fine destroys of their standard in this period have endure. With the happening to Christianity, it turned into a church district among the sees of Palestina Tertia subject to Bostra.
At the ascent of Islam, Amman was taken by the Arab general Yazīd ibn Abī Sufyān in 635 CE; by around 1300 it had totally vanished, from makes obscure students of history. In 1878 the Ottoman Turks resettled the site with Circassian displaced people from Russia; it remained a little town until after World War I.
After the war Transjordan turned out to be a piece of the Palestine command, yet the British government, as compulsory, successfully cut off it from western Palestine (1921) and set up a secured emirate of Transjordan, under the standard of ʿAbdullāh, child of Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī, at that point lord of the Hejaz and sharif of Mecca. Amman before long wound up capital of this new express; its advanced improvement started in this period and was quickened by Jordanian autonomy (1946). The city developed quickly; the urban territory got an enormous flood of Palestinian Arab outcasts after the first of the Arab-Israeli wars in 1948–49. A second, bigger flood of displaced people touched base after the Six-Day War of 1967, when Jordan lost every one of its domains west of the Jordan River to Israel. Political clash between the Jordanian government and insubordinate Palestinian guerrillas emitted into open common war in 1970 in the boulevards of Amman; in spite of the fact that the administration powers at long last won, the city was seriously harmed.
Amman is Jordan’s main business, money related, and global exchange focus. The regal castles are toward the east; the Parliament is in the western area. Boss enterprises incorporate nourishment and tobacco preparing, concrete generation, and the assembling of materials, paper items, plastics, and aluminum utensils. Amman is Jordan’s central transportation focus: two interstates lead west toward Jerusalem, and one of the city’s fundamental lanes turns into the way to Al-Salṭ, toward the northwest. Jordan’s fundamental north-south interstate, with its southern end at Al-ʿAqabah port, goes through the city. The cutting edge, well-adjusted Queen Alia International Airport is situated close to the tracks of the old Hejaz Railway, nearly 25 miles (40 km) south of the city. The University of Jordan (1962) and a few historical centers and libraries, including the National Library, are situated at Amman. Locales of intrigue incorporate the remaining parts of the old bastion, the bordering archeological gallery, and a huge, finely protected Roman amphitheater, which once situated 6,000. Pop. (2004 est.) 1,036,330.
Riyadh, Arabic Al-Riyāḍ, city and capital of Saudi Arabia. The city’s name is gotten from the plural of the Arabic rawḍah, which means greenhouses or glades, so named for a characteristic fruitfulness given by its area at the crossroads of Wadis Ḥanīfah and Al-Baṭḥāʾ. The dynamite sight of Riyadh from the air, lit up at night by city lights, is reminiscent of its eponymous knolls; a brilliant ocean of lights spot the desert as though fluorescent bloom plant enclosures have all of a sudden bloomed among its dim shapes.
The city is situated in the Minṭaqat Al-Riyāḍ, one of the nation’s 13 areas, and is arranged in the focal segments of both the nation and the bigger Arabian Peninsula. Maybe a couple of the world’s urban communities have changed as quickly as Riyadh, which developed from a little, invigorated desert town in the seventeenth century into a cutting edge city of a few million occupants in the twentieth century. Zone city, 600 square miles (1,550 square km). Pop. (2010) 5,188,286.
Life in Riyadh is focused around the city’s in excess of 4,000 mosques and its various occupied with malls. The city’s focal center and its numerous souks (commercial centers) pull in overwhelming passerby traffic, underscoring the city’s extreme sentiment of imperativeness. As occupants of a noteworthy city in a mostly Muslim (see Islam) nation, Riyadh’s occupants cling to various social standards that incorporate isolation of the genders and the need to ensure the protection of the family. Recreational exercises are frequently a family undertaking, and huge open social events are fundamentally confined to male specialists. Be that as it may, numerous movement focuses enable ladies and families to go to at uncommon occasions or in held zones.
Riyadh’s physical design is overwhelmed by its road framework—a very characterized matrix made up of 1.25-mile by 1.25-mile (2-km by 2-km) square squares—which gives a system over the cityscape. This framework is traversable, however it is additionally considered by some to keep, due to its controlled compartmentalization of the city’s networks and neighborhoods.
Rio de Janeiro, in full Cidade de São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, byname Rio, city and port, capital of the estado (state) of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is situated on the Atlantic Ocean, in the southeastern piece of the tropical zone of South America, and is widely perceived as one of the world’s most lovely and fascinating urban focuses. In spite of the fact that Rio de Janeiro keeps on being the prevalent symbol of Brazil according to numerous on the planet, in all actuality its area, design, occupants, and way of life make it very one of a kind when contrasted and other Brazilian urban communities, particularly the nation’s capital of Brasília or the a lot bigger city of São Paulo. The previous is an a lot littler city going back just to the 1960s, while the last is a colossal, rambling business and assembling focus with none of Rio’s terrific characteristic excellence or enrapturing charm. In contrast to Rio, both are situated on level interior levels.
The name was given to the city’s unique site by Portuguese pilots who touched base on January 1, 1502, and confused the passageway of the straight with the mouth of a stream (rio is the Portuguese word for “waterway” and janeiro the word for “January”). At the point when the establishments of things to come town were laid in 1565, it was named Cidade de São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro (“City of St. Sebastian of Rio de Janeiro”) for both São Sebastião and Dom Sebastião, ruler of Portugal.
Rio de Janeiro turned into the pilgrim capital in 1763 and was the capital of independent Brazil from 1822 until 1960, when the national capital was moved to the new city of Brasília; the domain establishing the previous Federal District was changed over into Guanabara state, which shaped an enclave in Rio de Janeiro state. In March 1975 the two states were combined as the province of Rio de Janeiro. The city of Rio de Janeiro ended up one of the 14 districts of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, or Greater Rio, and was designated the capital of the revamped state. Despite loss of the status, subsidizing, and work it had delighted in as Brazil’s capital, Rio de Janeiro made due as well as flourished as a business and money related focus, just as a vacationer magnet. Territory city, 485 square miles (1,255 square km); Greater Rio, 2,079 square miles (5,384 square km). Pop. (2000) 5,857,904; Greater Rio, 10,894,156; (2010) 6,320,446; Greater Rio, 11,875,063.
Guilin, Wade-Giles romanization Kuei-lin, additionally spelled Kweilin, once in the past Lingui, city, northeastern Zhuang Autonomous Region of Guangxi, southern China. The common course focus of the Gui River bowl, Guilin lies along the most effortless of the considerable number of courses driving from focal China to Guangdong area—that between the headwaters of the Xiang River in Hunan territory and the upper waters of the Gui River (there called the Li River). The two streams were connected in early occasions by the amazing Ling Canal, which along these lines made it workable for little specialty to go between the Yangtze (north) and Xi (south) waterway frameworks.
At the point when the main ruler of the Qin tradition (221–207 BCE) attempted his incredible battle against the territory of Nanyue in Guangdong, his powers touched base by this course and are said to have set up the primary organization in the zone. In the first century BCE, the Han tradition (206 BCE–220 CE) settled a province situate there, called Shi’an. The previous district name, Lingui, was first given during the Tang line (618–907). Under the Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1644–1911/12) traditions, it progressed toward becoming Guilin predominant prefecture; under the Qing it was additionally the commonplace capital of Guangxi. In 1912 it returned to region status as Guilin, and the commonplace capital was moved to Nanning. It again turned into the common capital in 1936 however was traded for a second time by Nanning in 1949.
Guilin has for some time been a significant focal point of exchange and organization in light of its area on a horticulturally rich valley floor that is additionally the most effortless course south from Hunan. In 1939 the Hunan-Guangxi railroad was reached out through Guilin to Liuzhou by means of this hallway.
Guilin has dependably been a workmanship focus, however until 1949 the main indications of present day industry were a warm power plant, a bond works, and some little material factories. Since the 1950s Guilin has created enterprises occupied with the production of hardware, designing and horticultural gear, drug, elastic, and transports, and it likewise has material and cotton yarn plants. Sustenance preparing, including the handling of neighborhood horticultural produce, remains the most significant industry.
Guilin is additionally a social focus. As a noteworthy focus of Buddhism in the seventh century, it had numerous popular religious communities. Today the city has in excess of 10 schools and colleges. Guilin (its name signifies “Timberland of Sweet Osmanthus”) is set in a scene of remarkable regular magnificence and is eminent for its karst arrangements. Profound disintegration of the limestone level has left a large number of tall needle-molded zeniths out of whose lofty sides trees grow unrealistically. These fantastical mountains have for some time been memorialized in Chinese painting and verse. The city likewise has numerous caverns, the biggest and most fabulous of which is Ludiyan (“Reed Flute Cave”). Guilin is recorded as a state-level verifiable and social city. There are planned flights to significant urban areas in China and to Japan and the nations of Southeast Asia. Pop. (2002 est.) 534,861; (2007 est.) urban agglom., 887,000.
Melbourne, city, capital of the territory of Victoria, Australia. It is situated at the head of Port Phillip Bay, on the southeastern coast. In spite of the fact that the focal city is the home of less than 100,000 individuals, it is the center of a broad metropolitan territory—the world’s most southerly with a populace of more than 1,000,000. In Australia it is second just to Sydney in populace, and there is a genial contention between the two urban areas, to which geology and history have handed down various attributes.
In spite of the fact that Melbourne’s level site has prompted the ordinary advancement of a rectangular example of roads, the city has numerous lovely stops, and the individual with an eye for design detail and history can discover much that is changed and appealing. Melbourne has a notoriety for conservatism and money related soundness—ascribes that have added to its development and are uncovered by the blossoming horizon of the focal city and the quickly growing eastern rural areas. Zone City of Melbourne, 14 square miles (36 square km); Inner Melbourne, 33 square miles (86 square km); factual division, 2,971 square miles (7,695 square km). Pop. (2006) City of Melbourne, 71,380; Inner Melbourne, 270,964; Melbourne Statistical Division, 3,592,591.
Vancouver, city, southwestern British Columbia, Canada. It is the major urban focal point of western Canada and the focal point of one of the nation’s most crowded metropolitan locales. Vancouver lies between Burrard Inlet (an arm of the Strait of Georgia) toward the north and the Fraser River delta toward the south, inverse Vancouver Island. The city is only north of the U.S. province of Washington. It has a fine regular harbor on a heavenly site confronting the ocean and mountains. Pop. (2011) 603,502; metro. territory, 2,313,328; (2016) 631,486; metro. region, 2,463,431.
The area had for some time been possessed by a few Native American (First Nations) people groups when an exchanging post, Fort Langley, was set up by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1827 close to the mouth of the Fraser River. Barely any individuals of European plunge lived in the territory until the late 1850s, when the town of New Westminster (presently a suburb of Vancouver) was built up close to the site of the first fortification (in 1839 the fortress itself had been migrated somewhat more distant upstream). A large number of diggers, for the most part from California, overflowed into the district during the 1860s, pulled in by the gold rush in the Cariboo Mountains toward the upper east. Other than the Scottish, who were extremely powerful in Vancouver’s initial years, Americans notably affected the city. The proposal to name it Vancouver was made by an American, William Van Horne, leader of the Canadian Pacific Railway. What’s more, the city’s regularly chosen civic chairman (nine nonconsecutive terms from 1919 to 1933), L.D. Taylor, was initially from the United States. Additionally, the main significant industry in the zone, a sawmill on Burrard Inlet, was claimed by an American. At last, the principal significant industry not dependent on neighborhood normal assets, a still-dynamic sugar processing plant, was begun by an American.
Vancouver was initially a little sawmilling settlement, called Granville during the 1870s. It was consolidated as a city in April 1886 (just before it turned into the western end of the first trans-Canada railroad, the Canadian Pacific) and was renamed to respect the English guide George Vancouver, of the Royal Navy, who had investigated and studied the coast in 1792. An awful flame only two months after consolidation demolished the city in under 60 minutes. The city recouped, be that as it may, to turn into a prosperous port, helped to some degree by the opening of the Panama Canal (1914), which made it financially attainable to fare grain and timber from Vancouver toward the east shore of the United States and to Europe. In 1929 two enormous rural areas toward the south, Point Gray and South Vancouver, amalgamated with Vancouver, and its metropolitan region turned into the third most crowded in Canada. By the 1930s Vancouver was Canada’s real Pacific coast port. After World War II it formed into Canada’s fundamental business center for exchange with Asia and the Pacific Rim.
The city has for some time been a well known goal for migrants both from different pieces of Canada and from abroad. Remarkable has been the flood of East Asians, principally Chinese, particularly since World War II. Against Asian mobs and flare-ups of savagery were not rare during the city’s most punctual years. Protection from Asian migration was additionally confirm in the Komagata Maru occurrence of 1914, in which the ship of that name, conveying in excess of 300 Indians, was not permitted to land its travelers (every single British subject) and was compelled to come back to India.
Abu Dhabi, likewise spelled Abū Ẓaby, constituent emirate of the United Arab Emirates (once in the past Trucial States, or Trucial Oman). In spite of the fact that its global limits are contested, it is certainly the biggest of the nation’s seven constituent emirates, with more than three-fourths of the territory of the whole alliance. Its rich oil fields, both inland and in the Persian Gulf, make it, with neighboring Dubai, one of the country’s two most prosperous emirates.
Abu Dhabi fronts the Persian Gulf on the north for around 280 miles (450 km). The forlorn coast has numerous zones of sabkhah (“salt swamp”) and various seaward islands. Abu Dhabi fringes Qatar (west), Saudi Arabia (south), and Oman, earlier Muscat and Oman (east). Inside it half encompasses Dubai and has a short boondocks with Al-Shāriqah.
Since the eighteenth century the Āl bū Falāh group of the Banū Yās has been in power; their most punctual seat was in the Līwā (Al-Jiwāʾ) desert spring area. In 1761 they discovered wells of consumable water at the site of Abu Dhabi town on the coast, and they made their central command there from 1795. Since Abu Dhabi’s customary opponents were the Qawāsim privateers of Raʾs al-Khaymah and Al-Shāriqah sheikhdoms and on the grounds that the privateers were antagonistic to the sultanate of Muscat and Oman, Abu Dhabi’s rulers at first aligned themselves with the sultanate. In the nineteenth century, in any case, regional clashes created between Abu Dhabi, Muscat and Oman, and the extending intensity of the Wahhābī of Najd, precursors of the present decision line of Saudi Arabia. These contentions prompted outskirt debates, most still disrupted.
Despite the fact that not considered a privateer state, Abu Dhabi marked the British-supported General Treaty of Peace (1820), the oceanic ceasefire (1835), and the Perpetual Maritime Truce (1853). By the details of the Exclusive Agreement of 1892, its remote undertakings were set under British control. During the long principle of Sheik Zayd ibn Khalīfah (1855–1908), Abu Dhabi was the chief intensity of the Trucial Coast, however in the mid twentieth century it was outpaced by Al-Shāriqah and Dubai. At the point when Britain proposed withdrawal from the Persian Gulf (1968), Abu Dhabi, together with the other Trucial States, Bahrain, and Qatar, consulted to shape a nine-part organization. The last two states, in any case, turned out to be independently free (1971); Britain revoked its prior bargains with the Trucial States, and the new United Arab Emirates, of which Abu Dhabi is a main part, appeared. Abu Dhabi (the city) was made the temporary capital of the United Arab Emirates for a long time; its status was broadened a few times until it was made the perpetual national capital in the mid 1990s.
Frankfurt am Main, English Frankfurt on the Main, city, Hessen Land (state), western Germany. The city lies along the Main River around 19 miles (30 km) upstream from its conversion with the Rhine River at Mainz. Pop. (2011) city, 667,925; (2000 est.) urban agglom., 3,681,000.
There is proof of Celtic and Germanic settlements in the city dating from the first century BCE, just as Roman stays from the first and second hundreds of years CE. The name Frankfurt (“Ford [Passage or Crossing] of the Franks”) most likely emerged around 500 CE, when the Franks drove the Alemanni south, however the primary composed notice of Franconofurt comes from Charlemagne’s own biographer, Einhard, in the late eighth century. The Pfalz (supreme mansion) filled in as a significant imperial home of the East Frankish Carolingians from the ninth century through later medieval occasions. In the twelfth century the Hohenstaufen line raised another mansion in Frankfurt and walled the town. The Hohenstaufen ruler Frederick I (Frederick Barbarossa) was chosen lord there in 1152, and in 1356 the Golden Bull of Emperor Charles IV (the constitution of the Holy Roman Empire) assigned Frankfurt as the perpetual site for the race of the German rulers.
Frankfurt am Main was a free majestic city from 1372 until 1806, when Napoleon I made it the seat of government for the ruler primate of the Confederation of the Rhine. In 1810 the city turned into the capital of the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt, made by Napoleon. From 1815, when Napoleon fell, Frankfurt was again a free city, where in 1848–49 the Frankfurt National Assembly met. From 1816 to 1866 the city was the seat of the German Bundestag (Federal Diet) and therefore the capital of Germany. After the Seven Weeks’ War in 1866, Frankfurt was attached by Prussia and along these lines lost its free-city status. It was simply after its coordination into a unified Germany that Frankfurt formed into an enormous mechanical city.
Until World War II, Frankfurt’s Old Town, which had grown up around the supreme mansion, was the biggest medieval city still unblemished in Germany. The Old Town was for the most part decimated by Allied besieging efforts in 1944, in any case, and was along these lines reconstructed with multistory places of business and other present day structures. Among the city’s most popular old structures are the Römer (“the Roman”; some time ago the site of the Holy Roman head’s crowning celebration functions and now Frankfurt’s city corridor) and two other gabled houses on the Römerberg (the city square encompassing the Römer). Other authentic tourist spots incorporate the 155-foot-(47-meter-) tall Eschenheimer Tower (1400–28); the red sandstone house of prayer, which was committed to St. Bartholomew in 1239; and the Paulskirche, which was the gathering spot of the primary Frankfurt National Assembly.
Universal exchange fairs have been held in Frankfurt since 1240, and the city is presently a main business, monetary, and high-innovation focus. There is a significant stock trade (first settled in 1585). The Rothschild family begun structure its universal financial realm in Frankfurt. The city additionally is the home of the European Union’s national bank. Yearly book, car, and PC fairs are well known occasions, and there are numerous different fairs held consistently. Fabricates incorporate vehicles, hardware, substance and pharmaceutical items, printing materials, and staples. The city is customarily known for its creation of superb wieners (frankfurters).
Frankfurt has for some time been a key halting point for stream, rail, and street traffic from Switzerland and southern Germany northward along the Rhine River to the Ruhr locale and over the Main River to north-focal Germany. It is as yet the central traffic center point for western Germany and has additionally been a significant inland transporting port since the canalization of the Main during the 1880s. Frankfurt Airport is the biggest airplane terminal in Germany and one of the busiest in Europe.
Sharm al-Shaykh, likewise spelled Sharm el-Sheik, English Solomon’s Bay, resort town on the southeastern shore of the Sinai Peninsula. Situated in Janūb Sīnāʾ muḥāfaẓah (governorate), Egypt, the zone was involved by the Israelis from 1967 to 1982. The name Solomon’s Bay is an inference to King Solomon’s armadas, which apparently gone through the nearby Strait of Tiran on their way from the port of Ezion-geber, at the leader of the Gulf of Aqaba, to the place where there is Ophir (1 Kings 9), which has been differently recognized as India, Arabia, or Ethiopia.
Sharm al-Shaykh was uninhabited all through the vast majority of authentic time, yet it increased present day significance in view of its key circumstance ordering the thin access to the Gulf of Aqaba. The passage is 14 miles (23 km) upper east of Sharm al-Shaykh’s sound, at the Strait of Tiran. The strait, which is hindered by islets and coral reefs, is fixed in by the Raʾs Naṣrānī cape on the west and by Tīrān Island on the east. After Israel’s War of Independence (1948–49), Egyptian firearms were introduced in the region to keep shipping from coming to Elat, Israel’s just port on the Gulf of Aqaba. The establishments were caught by Israelis in the Sinai Campaign of 1956, and the straight and strait were watched by a United Nations Emergency Force from 1957 to 1967. Egypt’s withdrawal of the UN power and its conclusion of the strait in May 1967 helped encourage the Six-Day War of June 1967. Following that war, Israel again involved the zone until Israeli powers pulled back from the Sinai Peninsula in the mid 1980s.
The development of the region as a recreational and visitor site started under the Israeli organization and was proceeded by the Egyptian government. Today extravagance resorts, cafés, and dance club line the coast. The zone’s reasonable water and broad coral reefs have made Sharm al-Shaykh a well known site for snorkeling and scuba jumping. Pop. (2006) 38,478.