Metropolitan Museum of Art (United States)

Metropolitan Museum of Art, byname the Met, the biggest and most-exhaustive art museum in New York City and one of the premier on the planet.

The museum was fused in 1870 and opened two years after the fact. The complex of structures at its present area in Central Park opened in 1880. The primary structure confronting Fifth Avenue, planned by Richard Morris Hunt, was finished in 1902 and starting at 2016 was classified “The Met Fifth Avenue.” McKim, Mead, and White planned certain later increments. The American area, included 1924, incorporated the 1823 marble veneer spared from the pulverized U.S. Branch Bank on Wall Street. The rest of the twentieth century augmentations were finished by the compositional firm of Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo and Associates. They incorporated the Robert Lehman Wing (1975), with its Old Masters, Impressionist, and Post-Impressionist works; the Sackler Wing of the Temple of Dendur (1978), which houses a landmark given by Egypt; the American Wing (1980), a four-section of land expansion that was folded over the old area and contains the biggest gathering of American arts on the planet; the Michael C. Rockefeller Wing (1982), which houses the arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas; the Lila Acheson Wallace Wing (1987), which showcases Modern art; and the Henry R. Kravis Wing (1990), which contains mold and brightening arts of Europe up to the mid twentieth century. A redesigned and reconceived gathering of 15 displays including the “art of the Arab lands, Turkey, Iran, Central Asia, and later South Asia”— a standout amongst the most-complete accumulations of its sort—was opened in 2011. In March 2016 the Met extended its Modern and contemporary art programs into a Marcel Breuer-structured structure at East 75th Street and Madison Avenue (the previous area of the Whitney Museum of American Art). “The Met Breuer” was intended to have presentations and exhibitions identified with twentieth and 21st-century art, artist commissions and residencies, and instructive programming.

The Met has significant accumulations of Egyptian, Babylonian, Assyrian, East Asian and Middle Eastern, Greek and Roman, European, pre-Columbian, New Guinean, Islamic, and American art, including design, mold, painting, illustrations, calligraphy, prints, photos, glass, bronzes, earthenware production, materials, metalwork, lacquerwork, furniture, period rooms, arms and reinforcement, and melodic instruments.

The Thomas J. Watson Library, worked in 1964 fundamentally for the utilization of the museum staff and visiting researchers, has a standout amongst the most complete art and archaic exploration reference accumulations on the planet. It is the biggest of a system of committed libraries in the museum, yet just the Nolen Library is available to the general population.

European art of the Middle Ages is found in plain view in both the Central Park complex and at “The Met Cloisters,” the Met museum of medieval art in Fort Tryon Park in the northern part of Manhattan.

Palace of Versailles (France)

Palace of Versailles, previous French regal living arrangement and focal point of government, presently a national milestone. It is situated in the city of Versailles, Yvelines département, Île-de-France région, northern France, 10 miles (16 km) west-southwest of Paris. As the focal point of the French court, Versailles was one of the most excellent venues of European absolutism.

The first habitation was principally a chasing hotel and private retreat for Louis XIII (ruled 1610–43) and his family. In 1624 the ruler depended Jacques Lemercier with the development of a château on the site. Its dividers are protected today as the outside exterior ignoring the Marble Court.

Under the direction of Louis XIV (ruled 1643–1715), the living arrangement was changed (1661–1710) into a huge and luxurious complex encompassed by adapted French and English plant enclosures. Everything about its development was planned to commend the lord. The augmentations were planned by such prestigious designers as Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Robert de Cotte, and Louis Le Vau. Charles Le Brun regulated the inside beautification. Scene craftsman André Le Nôtre made symmetrical French gardens that included fancy wellsprings with “mysteriously” still water, communicating the intensity of humankind—and, explicitly, the ruler—over nature.

Toward the east of the palace is the Place d’Armes, a wide court that in the 21st century served principally as a parking area to suit the a great many visitors who visited Versailles every day. In the focal point of the Place d’Armes, confronting the Avenue de Paris, is a bronze equestrian statue of Louis XIV. Initially situated at the peak of the Court of Honor, the statue was moved to the Place d’Armes in 2009 after a broad rebuilding. Toward the west is the Gate of Honor, an overlaid iron door and stone balustrade that denotes the principle access to the palace complex. Past that lies the wide breadth of the Court of Honor, limited on the north and south by the Ministers’ Wings, sheds built during the 1680s to house the lord’s secretaries of state.

The Royal Gate, a detailed gold leaf door, isolates the Court of Honor from the Royal Court at the area where the Louis XIV statue once stood. Uncovered in 2008, the Royal Gate mostly re-makes an entryway that was structured by Hardouin-Mansart during the 1680s and was pulverized during the French Revolution. Some craftsmanship antiquarians condemned the Royal Gate as a cutting edge understanding of the first instead of a genuine reclamation, yet it served a verifiably profitable job in coordinating guest traffic. Flanking the Royal Court toward the south is the Dufour Pavilion, while the Gabriel Pavilion misleads the north. The two regions were widely renovated in the 21st century to fill in as guest gathering focuses. Past the Royal Court is the Marble Court, so named for the unmistakable high contrast marble tiles that embellish the porch floor. Many marble busts, portraying Roman divinities and heads, enhance the veneers sitting above the court, and the focal structures of the palace complex ascent around it.

The ground floor of the focal structure was held for key individuals from the regal family. Situated there are the lofts of the dauphin, the dauphine, and the little girls of Louis XV. The private condos of the ruler, Marie-Antoinette, and the living quarters of the skipper of the gatekeeper are additionally found on the ground floor. The primary floor of the focal structure houses the extravagant condos of the lord and ruler just as various salons for engaging visitors and individuals from court. The Bull’s-Eye Salon, named for its unmistakable oval window, was where subjects held up until the ruler rose. It prompts the room wherein Louis XIV passed on and that Louis XV involved from 1722 to 1738.

Maybe the most-renowned room in the palace is the Hall of Mirrors (1678–89). The display expands in excess of 230 feet (70 meters) and is portrayed by 17 wide arcaded reflects inverse 17 windows that disregard the nurseries underneath. Glass light fixtures enhance the curved, luxuriously painted roof, whereupon Le Brun delineated a progression of 30 scenes commending the early long stretches of the rule of Louis XIV. Overlaid statues and reliefs fringe its marble dividers. The corridor is flanked on furthest edges by the similarly striking Salon of Peace and Salon of War.

In the north wing, the palace house of prayer transcends the remainder of the grounds. It was started by Hardouin-Mansart in 1699 and was his last significant work. The house of prayer was finished by de Cotte in 1710, and it facilitated day by day masses just as imperial weddings and absolutions until 1789. The north wing additionally contains exhibitions, salons, and condos. At the far north end of the wing is the Opéra Royal, worked under Louis XV by Ange-Jacques Gabriel. It was first utilized on May 16, 1770, for the marriage of the dauphin (later Louis XVI) and Marie-Antoinette. The venue was the site of a sumptuous meal for illustrious watchmen on October 2, 1789, and the master government overabundances in plain view were accounted for—and likely misrepresented—by the Revolutionary press. After three days the supposed “ladies’ walk” on Versailles would compel Louis XVI to migrate to Paris and spell the finish of the palace as an imperial habitation. The Opéra Royal facilitated the National Assembly from 1871 until the announcement of the Third Republic in 1875, and the Senate met there from March 8, 1876, until the governing body came back to Paris in 1879.

The south wing was nicknamed “the rulers’ wing,” as the rulers du sang (“rulers of the blood”) were given quarters there. That region experienced broad rebuilding in the post-Revolutionary period, and the ground floor is presently commanded by the Hall of Congress, where the Chamber of Deputies met from 1876 to 1879. The primary floor is predominantly involved by the Battles Gallery, which was planned by engineers Frédéric Nepveu and Pierre-Léonard Fontaine and was uncovered in June 1837. It follows the military history of France from the rule of Clovis I to Napoleon. Many artistic creations portray key fights, and the lobby contains in excess of 80 busts of commended military pioneers.

Barcelona (Spain)

Barcelona, city, seaport, and capital of Barcelona provincia (area) and of Catalonia comunidad autónoma (self-ruling network), northeastern Spain, found 90 miles (150 km) south of the French outskirt. It is Spain’s significant Mediterranean port and business focus and is renowned for its uniqueness, social intrigue, and physical excellence.

On his visit to the city in 1862, Hans Christian Andersen commented that Barcelona was the “Paris of Spain.” The city is undoubtedly a noteworthy social focus with an astounding history. It teems with documents, libraries, historical centers, and structures of enthusiasm, including radiant instances of Modernist and Art Nouveau stylistic theme and engineering. Since the late 1970s, with the official acknowledgment of the Catalan language and the conceding of huge degrees of provincial self-government, social life has been renewed, carrying with it another attention to the profundity and assortment of Catalan culture. This imperativeness consolidates with the striking physical setting of Barcelona—between beautiful mountains and the Mediterranean Sea, with a favorable atmosphere that cultivates road life—and its noteworthiness as a financial power and a noteworthy port to make a city of interminable assortment. Region city, 38 square miles (98 square km); metropolitan territory, 1,249 square miles (3,235 square km). Pop. (2011) 1,611,013.

Sofia (Bulgaria)

Sofia, Bulgarian Sofiya, capital of Bulgaria. It is arranged close to the land focus of the Balkans area, in the Sofia Basin, a troughlike valley in the western piece of the nation.


The Serdi (Sardi), a Thracian clan, built up a settlement in the area in the eighth century BCE. This people group was vanquished not long after 29 BCE by the Romans, who named it Serdica (Greek: Sardica). It thrived during the rule of the head Trajan (98–117) and achieved its most noteworthy stature under the sovereign Constantine I the Great; in 342 or 343 it was the site of a significant gathering of Christian diocesans, the Council of Sardica. From the fourth century it was a piece of the Western Roman Empire, however with the decay of Rome go to Byzantium; it was pillaged by Attila and the Huns in 441–447. During the sixth century Byzantine impact expanded under the ruler Justinian, and the reestablished Church of St. Sofia, which later gave the town its name, makes due from this period. In 809 the Bulgarian khan Krum held onto the town and joined it in the Bulgarian state; it was given the Slav name Sredets (Greek: Triaditsa). It was under Byzantine standard from 1018 until 1185, when the second Bulgarian Empire was set up.

Sofia tumbled to the Turks in 1382; the Ottoman legislative head of Rumelia took up living arrangement there, and the town step by step procured an unmistakable Oriental appearance. It was freed from Ottoman standard by Russian troops on January 4, 1878, and was assigned the Bulgarian capital on April 3, 1879.

After World War II the city was additionally industrialized. The main businesses are building, metallurgy, sustenance handling, and the assembling of materials and apparel. Printing is significant; the elastic, footwear, furniture and carpentry, and substance enterprises are additionally very much spoken to.

An agrarian zone described by foods grown from the ground developing and by dairy cultivating encompasses Sofia, and it is associated with neighboring towns by streets. Sofia is likewise the focal point of Bulgarian air and rail traffic. Nearby vehicle is served by tramways, trolleybuses, and transports, while a few link lifts rise the neighboring Vitosha Mountains.

Among the numerous instructive organizations in Sofia are the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and the University of Sofia (1888), the most established foundation of higher learning in Bulgaria. The city likewise contains the Cyril and Methodius National Library, the Ivan Vazov National Theater and Opera House, a galactic observatory, and various exhibition halls. Notwithstanding the reestablished St. George, Boyana, and St. Sofia chapels, chronicled landmarks incorporate two mosques, one lodging a fine archeological accumulation, and the St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, raised to celebrate the appreciation of the Bulgarian individuals to the Russian deliverers of 1878. Pop. (2011) 1,291,591.

Artvin (Turkey)

Artvin, city, northeastern Turkey. It is situated on the Çoruh River close to the fringe with Georgia.

Together with the neighboring locale of Kars, Artvin was surrendered to Russia at the finish of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78. It was come back to Turkey by a settlement among Turkey and Soviet Russia marked at Brest-Litovsk in 1918.

A neighborhood showcase for agrarian and creature items, Artvin is connected by street with its port of Hopa toward the northwest, which is on the Black Sea, and with Erzurum toward the south. The populace incorporates numerous Georgians, Kurds, and Lazes. Pop. (2000) 23,137; (2013 est.) 25,771.

Krabi (Thailand)

Krabi, port town, southwestern Thailand. Krabi is arranged on the Strait of Malacca on the Andaman Sea and is a takeoff point for angling and for movement to close-by islands.

The encompassing locale is broadly planted in coconuts. Most settlements are waterfront angling towns, and shell reefs, shorelines, professional flowerbeds, underground streams, and surrenders are found in the area around Krabi. Pop. (2000) 23,788.

Jeju Island (South Korea)

Cheju Island, additionally called Quelpart Island, Korean in full Cheju-t’ŭkpyŏlchach’i-do or Jeju-teukbyeoljachi-do, island and (since 2006) exceptional self-governing territory of South Korea. The region, the littlest of the republic, is in the East China Sea 60 miles (100 km) southwest of South Chŏlla area, of which it used to be a section. The commonplace capital is the city of Cheju.

Oval fit as a fiddle, Cheju Island estimates 40 miles (64 km) from east to west and 16 miles (26 km) from north to south. The island is made out of a center of volcanic material that ascents symmetrically to the peak of Mount Halla (6,398 feet [1,950 metres]), which has a lake in its cavity. The mountain and its encompassing region are a national park. Several cavity framed slopes from which volcanic material once streamed, ocean side inclines with cascades, and magma passages (or cylinders) are worldwide touring attractions. The island’s magma tubes and certain other volcanic arrangements (counting Mount Halla) were on the whole assigned an UNESCO World Heritage site in 2007. Cheju is washed in warm flows, and its maritime atmosphere underpins some subtropical plants.

Until 938 the island was an autonomous kingdom called T’amna. During the Koryŏ time frame (935–1392) and the Chosŏn tradition (1392–1910), it was utilized as a position of political outcast and for touching ponies. The Dutch sailor Hendrik Hamel, the principal Westerner known to have visited Korea, floated to the island in 1653 and acquainted it with the West by the name of Quelpart. Cheju accomplished commonplace (do) status in 1946. Following World War II, the island turned into a focal point of turmoil as resistance to the arranged division of the Korean promontory developed. A noteworthy resistance driven by radical guerrillas started on April 3, 1948, in front of South Korea’s first broad decisions, got ready for early May. Government security powers endeavored to smother the uprising and recaptured control of the island in 1949, however sporadic battling proceeded until the mid 1950s. The legislature was later blamed for having perpetrated monstrosities during the contention; despite the fact that there were no affirmed losses of life, decades later an official examination evaluated that in excess of 25,000 individuals had been slaughtered. The degree of the U.S. military’s job in subduing the uprising caused much discussion too. In the mid 21st century the South Korean government apologized for any maltreatment submitted by its powers.

The city of Cheju is the island’s chief port and the site of its primary airplane terminal, which handles household and global traffic. Sŏgwip’o (Seogwipo), on the southern coast, is the second biggest city and the focal point of vacationer action on the island. The travel industry, horticultural items (prominently oranges), and angling are among the central supporters of the economy. An important marine item is a types of mollusk, the shell of which outfits a unique glowing mother-of-pearl utilized for decorated polish. Talented ladies jumpers, called haenyŏ (“ocean ladies”), accumulate kelp and shellfish. In the mid 21st century, debate ejected over the development of a South Korean maritime base on the southern coast. Region, including 26 little related islands, 714 square miles (1,849 square km). Pop. (2010) 531,905.

Kiev (Ukraine)

Kiev, Ukrainian Kyiv, likewise spelled Kyyiv, Russian Kiyev, boss city and capital of Ukraine. A port on the Dnieper (Dnipro) River and a huge railroad intersection, it is a city with an old and glad history. As the focal point of Kievan Rus, the primary eastern Slavic state, 1,000 years back, it gained the title “Mother of Rus Cities.” It was seriously harmed during World War II, however by the mid-1950s it had been reestablished, and in the second 50% of the twentieth century it delighted in a well-created monetary and social life. The freedom of Ukraine from the Soviet Union in 1991 reestablished Kiev’s status as a noteworthy European capital. Pop. (2001) 2,611,327; (2017 est.) 2,925,760.

The city remains on the Dnieper River just beneath its conjunction with the Desna and 591 miles (951 km) from its mouth operating at a profit Sea. The first area was on the high and soak right (western) bank, which transcends the stream in an overwhelming line of feigns coming full circle in Batyyeva Hill, 330 feet (100 meters) above mean waterway level. This sharp and lush bank, bested by the brilliant arches and towers of houses of worship and ringer towers and by skyscraper condo structures, makes the city an appealing and amazing sight from over the Dnieper. Since World War II, Kiev has expanded onto the wide, low, and level floodplain on the left (eastern) bank.