Kraków, likewise spelled Cracow, city and capital of Małopolskie województwo (region), southern Poland, lying on the two sides of the upper Vistula River. One of the biggest urban areas in Poland, it is known principally for its terrific memorable engineering and social authority; UNESCO assigned its old town region a World Heritage site in 1978. Its commercial center, Rynek Główny (Main Square), has existed since the thirteenth century, and an advanced arranged zone is spread out on the site of past fortresses. Pop. (2011) 757,611.
Kraków was the home of the Wiślanie clan (Vistulans), who involved Małopolska (Little Poland) until the tenth century. From 988 to 990 Mieszko I, ruler of Poland, joined the southern and northern domains to frame an amazing kingdom, and his child, Bolesław I (the Brave), later made Kraków the seat of a Polish church district. The city extended quickly as an exchange focus, turning into the capital of one of Poland’s real territories in 1138. It was crushed by Tatar intrusions during the thirteenth century yet was rapidly remade, accepting “Magdeburg rights,” which comprised of a city constitution, in 1257.
When King Władysław I (the Short) rejoined Poland, he made Kraków his capital in 1320, after which the rulers of Poland were generally delegated in Wawel Castle and buried in Wawel Cathedral. All through the fourteenth century Kraków filled in as Poland’s financial and political focus and as a noteworthy exchanging point among England and Hungary. Simultaneously, it developed into the country’s scholarly and social locus, as prove by one of its primary enduring medieval structures, the Jagiellonian University. Established as the Academy of Kraków by Casimir III (the Great) in 1364, the college picked up renown consistently, drawing researchers, specialists, and researchers from over the landmass; it is the second most established college in focal Europe