Cheju Island, additionally called Quelpart Island, Korean in full Cheju-t’ŭkpyŏlchach’i-do or Jeju-teukbyeoljachi-do, island and (since 2006) exceptional self-governing territory of South Korea. The region, the littlest of the republic, is in the East China Sea 60 miles (100 km) southwest of South Chŏlla area, of which it used to be a section. The commonplace capital is the city of Cheju.
Oval fit as a fiddle, Cheju Island estimates 40 miles (64 km) from east to west and 16 miles (26 km) from north to south. The island is made out of a center of volcanic material that ascents symmetrically to the peak of Mount Halla (6,398 feet [1,950 metres]), which has a lake in its cavity. The mountain and its encompassing region are a national park. Several cavity framed slopes from which volcanic material once streamed, ocean side inclines with cascades, and magma passages (or cylinders) are worldwide touring attractions. The island’s magma tubes and certain other volcanic arrangements (counting Mount Halla) were on the whole assigned an UNESCO World Heritage site in 2007. Cheju is washed in warm flows, and its maritime atmosphere underpins some subtropical plants.
Until 938 the island was an autonomous kingdom called T’amna. During the Koryŏ time frame (935–1392) and the Chosŏn tradition (1392–1910), it was utilized as a position of political outcast and for touching ponies. The Dutch sailor Hendrik Hamel, the principal Westerner known to have visited Korea, floated to the island in 1653 and acquainted it with the West by the name of Quelpart. Cheju accomplished commonplace (do) status in 1946. Following World War II, the island turned into a focal point of turmoil as resistance to the arranged division of the Korean promontory developed. A noteworthy resistance driven by radical guerrillas started on April 3, 1948, in front of South Korea’s first broad decisions, got ready for early May. Government security powers endeavored to smother the uprising and recaptured control of the island in 1949, however sporadic battling proceeded until the mid 1950s. The legislature was later blamed for having perpetrated monstrosities during the contention; despite the fact that there were no affirmed losses of life, decades later an official examination evaluated that in excess of 25,000 individuals had been slaughtered. The degree of the U.S. military’s job in subduing the uprising caused much discussion too. In the mid 21st century the South Korean government apologized for any maltreatment submitted by its powers.
The city of Cheju is the island’s chief port and the site of its primary airplane terminal, which handles household and global traffic. Sŏgwip’o (Seogwipo), on the southern coast, is the second biggest city and the focal point of vacationer action on the island. The travel industry, horticultural items (prominently oranges), and angling are among the central supporters of the economy. An important marine item is a types of mollusk, the shell of which outfits a unique glowing mother-of-pearl utilized for decorated polish. Talented ladies jumpers, called haenyŏ (“ocean ladies”), accumulate kelp and shellfish. In the mid 21st century, debate ejected over the development of a South Korean maritime base on the southern coast. Region, including 26 little related islands, 714 square miles (1,849 square km). Pop. (2010) 531,905.