Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnamese Thanh Pho Ho Chi Minh, in the past (until 1976) Saigon, biggest city in Vietnam. It was the capital of the French protectorate of Cochinchina (1862–1954) and of South Vietnam (1954–75). The city lies along the Saigon River (Song Sai Gon) toward the north of the Mekong River delta, around 50 miles (80 km) from the South China Sea. The business focal point of Cho Lon lies quickly west of Ho Chi Minh City.
The region currently involved by Ho Chi Minh City was for quite a while part of the kingdom of Cambodia. The Vietnamese initially picked up passage to the area in the seventeenth century. Relations with France started in the eighteenth century, when French merchants and teachers settled in the territory. In 1859 the town was caught by the French, and in 1862 it was surrendered to France by the Vietnamese head Tu Duc. As the capital of Cochinchina, Saigon was changed into a noteworthy port city and a metropolitan focus of wonderful estates, forcing open structures, and well-cleared, tree-lined streets. Railroad lines running north and south of the city were developed, and Saigon turned into the chief gathering point for the fare of rice developed in the Mekong River delta.
Saigon was involved by the Japanese in 1940, yet French frontier authorities kept on managing Vietnam until 1945, when they were interned by the Japanese. Saigon itself was to a great extent unaffected by World War II.
After the Japanese give up in 1945, Vietnamese autonomy was pronounced by the Viet Minh association under Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, however festivities in Saigon transformed into a mob. French troops at that point held onto control of the city, and the First (or French) Indochina War started. The war finished in 1954 with a Geneva gathering, which separated Vietnam into northern and southern zones. The social and political existence of Saigon, which turned into the capital of South Vietnam, was advanced and confounded by a flood of outcasts from North Vietnam.
During the Second Indochina War (or Vietnam War) during the 1960s and mid ’70s, Saigon was the central command of U.S. military activities. Portions of the city were devastated by battling in 1968. On April 30, 1975, North Vietnamese troops caught Saigon, and the city was consequently renamed Ho Chi Minh City.
Under socialist control, Ho Chi Minh City lost its authoritative capacities, and strenuous endeavors were made to diminish its populace and reliance upon imported products and to nationalize its business ventures. While numerous business firms shut or were upset after 1975, new pursuits started, with accentuation put on independence. A state-run handiwork endeavor trades a wide scope of items—including furniture, rugs, veneer depictions, and different centerpieces—made to a great extent from neighborhood materials.
Ho Chi Minh City holds the blurred look of an European city, its numerous Western-style structures dating from the time of French pilgrim rule. A large portion of the bars and cafés that flourished in Saigon during the Vietnam War have shut their entryways. The rich Cercle Sportif, a point of convergence of public activity for Westerners after it was established in 1912, is currently a people’s gallery. The old drama house, for a long time the National Assembly Building, was changed over to a national theater. The University of Saigon was revamped to frame the University of Ho Chi Minh City. Tan Son Nhut Airport has routinely planned flights via Air Vietnam to other local urban focuses and via Air France to Paris. Pop. (2009) 5,880,615; (2014 est.) urban agglom., 6,861,000.