Hangzhou, Wade-Giles romanization Hang-chou, ordinary Hangchow, city and capital of Zhejiang sheng (area), China. The city is situated in the northern piece of the territory on the north bank of the Qiantang River estuary at the head of Hangzhou Bay. It has water correspondences with the inside of Zhejiang toward the south, is the southern end of the Grand Canal, and is connected to the system of trenches and conduits that spread the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) delta territory toward the north. The city remains at the eastern foot of a grand scope of slopes, the Tianmu (“Eye of Heaven”) Mountains, and on the shore of the well known Xi (West) Lake, celebrated in verse and sketches for its excellence and a most loved magnificent retreat. Pop. (2002 est.) city, 2,059,774; (2007 est.) urban agglom., 3,007,000.
The district of Qiantang was first settled at this site under the Qin line (221–207 BCE) however did not begin creating until the fourth and fifth hundreds of years CE, when the Yangtze River delta territory started to be settled. A prefecture named Hangzhou was made there in 589, during the Sui administration (581–618), which is the wellspring of the city’s name. It turned into a noteworthy neighborhood focus with the fruition of the Jiangnan Canal (at that point the southern segment of the Grand Canal) in 609. During the Ten Kingdoms (Shiguo) period (907–960), Hangzhou was the capital of the province of Wu-Yue. In the later Song time frame (960–1279), northern China tumbled to the Jin (Juchen) tradition (1115–1234); from 1127 the Song rulers were restricted to southern China, and they made Hangzhou (at that point known as Lin’an) their capital. A focal point of trade, it was visited in the late thirteenth century by the Venetian explorer Marco Polo, who called it Kinsai, or Quinsay; it at that point had an expected populace of 1 million to 1.5 million.
Despite the fact that it never again achieved the pinnacle of significance that it had accomplished as capital of the Nan (Southern) Song, Hangzhou stayed significant. Under the Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1644–1911/12) lines, it was a predominant prefecture, notwithstanding being the commonplace capital of Zhejiang. It turned out to be massively affluent, being at the focal point of a ripe rice-developing region just as being the site of the most significant silk ventures in China. It likewise was celebrated as a focal point of culture, delivering various journalists, painters, and artists. Its significance as a port dwindled, in any case, as Hangzhou Bay steadily silted up and as its outport, Ganpu, wound up futile. From the fourteenth century its exchange bit by bit moved to Ningbo toward the southeast on the southern shore of the cove and, in the nineteenth century, to the new city of Shanghai, somewhere in the range of 100 miles (160 km) toward the upper east at the mouth of the Yangtze. In 1861, during the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64), the city tumbled to the renegades and endured extreme harm.
Along these lines, albeit no longer a noteworthy port, it remained a business community for local exchange and was opened to outside exchange 1896. Its business job was later increased by the development of a railroad to Shanghai (1909), of another to Ningbo (1914), and of a fundamental line to Jiangxi and Hunan territories in 1936–38. Since the development of railroads in Fujian territory during the 1950s, Hangzhou has turned into the focal point of rail traffic from the southeastern regions to Shanghai. It was additionally the focal point of the soonest system of present day engine streets, built during the 1930s. Hangzhou was held by the Japanese from 1937 to 1945.