Chennai, in the past Madras, city, capital of Tamil Nadu state, southern India, on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. Known as the “Portal to South India,” Chennai is a noteworthy authoritative and social focus. Pop. (2001) city, 4,343,645; urban agglom., 6,560,242.
Armenian and Portuguese brokers were living in the San Thome territory of what is currently present-day Chennai before the entry of the British in 1639. Madras was the abbreviated name of the angling town Madraspatnam, where the British East India Company constructed a fortification and manufacturing plant (exchanging post) in 1639–40. Around then, the weaving of cotton textures was a nearby industry, and the English welcomed the weavers and local vendors to settle close to the fortress. By 1652 the production line of Fort St. George was perceived as an administration (a managerial unit represented by a president), and somewhere in the range of 1668 and 1749 the organization extended its control. Around 1801, by which time the remainder of the neighborhood rulers had been shorn of his powers, the English had progressed toward becoming bosses of southern India, and Madras had turned into their authoritative and business capital. The legislature of Tamil Nadu authoritatively changed the name of the city to Chennai in 1996.
Madras created without an arrangement from its seventeenth century center, shaped by Fort St. George and the Indian quarters. Toward the north and northwest are the mechanical regions; the fundamental local locations are toward the west and south, where various present day skyscraper loft structures have been built, and the old towns are in the middle. The most unmistakable structures in the city are the seven huge sanctuaries in the Dravidian style, arranged in the city areas of George Town, Mylapore, and Triplicane. The Chepauk Palace (the previous home of the nawab [Mughal ruler] of Karnataka) and the University Senate House, both in the Deccan Muslim style, and the Victoria Technical Institute and the High Court structures, both in the Indo-Saracenic style, are commonly viewed as the most alluring structures of the British time frame.
Chennai and its rural areas have in excess of 600 Hindu sanctuaries. The most seasoned is the Parthasarathi Temple worked in the eighth century by Pallava lords. The Kapaleeswarar Temple (sixteenth century) is committed to the Hindu god Shiva. Different spots of love inside the city incorporate Luz Church (1547–82), one of the most seasoned holy places in Chennai; St. Mary’s Church (1678–80), the principal British church in India; the San Thome Basilica (1898), worked over the tomb of the messenger St. Thomas; and Wallajah Mosque (1795), worked by the nawab of Karnataka. The Armenian Church of the Holy Virgin Mary (1772), in the George Town segment of Chennai, encompasses a yard burial ground with Armenian headstones dating from the mid-seventeenth century. The global central station of the Theosophical Society is arranged in nurseries between the Adyar River and the coast. Quite compelling there is a banyan tree dating from around 1600.
Since the late 1990s, programming improvement and gadgets assembling have made up the main part of Chennai’s economy. Various innovation parks, where numerous outside organizations have workplaces, are found all through the city. Other real enterprises incorporate the production of vehicles, elastic, compost, calfskin, iron metal, and cotton materials. Wheat, apparatus, iron and steel, and crude cotton are imported. There is a petroleum processing plant in Chennai. Administrations, particularly money and the travel industry, are additionally huge. Lodgings, extravagance resorts, eateries, marinas, and parks line Marina Beach, the coastline adjoining Chennai city.
Chennai has various instructive establishments. Proficient instruction can be gotten in the state medicinal and veterinary sciences universities, the schools of designing and innovation, the Tamil Nadu Isai Kalluri music school, the College of Arts and Crafts, and the educator preparing schools. The city is the site of the University of Madras (1857), which has a few propelled focuses of research. The Indian Institute of Technology, the Central Leather Research Institute, and the Regional Laboratories of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research are other imperative logical foundations. The M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation centers around farming advancement in Chennai and Tamil Nadu.
Since the 1980s Chennai has developed as one of the main therapeutic focuses of the nation. This was a consequence of the multiplication of private claim to fame medical clinics, particularly those which give treatment to heart and eye sicknesses. Among the main therapeutic offices in the city are the Apollo Hospital, the Madras Medical Mission’s Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, the Sri Ramachandra University Hospital, the Heart Institute of Chennai, and the Shankara Nethralaya (“Temple of the Eye”), an eye clinic.
Social establishments in Chennai incorporate the Madras Music Academy, dedicated to the consolation of Karnatak music—the music of Karnataka, the authentic district between the southern Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal and the Deccan level. The Kalakshetra is a focal point of move and music, and the Rasika Ranjini Sabha, in Mylapore, empowers the dramatic expressions. The city has preparing places for kuchipudi and bharata natyam (Indian old style move frames). Kalakshetra and Sri Krishna Gana Sabha, a social foundation, both host yearly move celebrations. The rural town of Kodambakkam, with its various film studios, is depicted as the Hollywood of southern India. Three theaters—the Children’s Theater, the Annamalai Manram, and the Museum Theater—are mainstream. The Chennai Government Museum has displays on the history and physical parts of Tamil Nadu. There is a little accumulation of East India Company ancient pieces in the Fort Museum (inside Fort St. George) and an accumulation of sketches in the National Art Gallery.
Squash, cricket, tennis, and hockey are well known games in Chennai and its encompassing district. The Madras Cricket Club (1848), situated behind the Chepauk Palace, is host to significant national games competitions. The city has numerous different clubs and affiliations including engine sports, chess, and equestrian occasions. Paddling and yachting have a little yet steadfast after at the Madras Boat Club (1867) and the Royal Madras Yacht Club (1911). Guindy National Park is a natural life asylum arranged in the core of the city. Different spots for diversion in and around Chennai are the Chennai Crocodile Bank, Pulicat Lake (an enormous saltwater tidal pond), a winged animal haven, and a zoological park.
Chennai is very much associated by street, rail, air, and ocean. It has a worldwide airplane terminal and seaport. Inside the city a system of transport administrations and auto-rickshaws are basic methods of vehicle. The memorable town of Mamallapuram with its shore sanctuary, around 37 miles (60 km) south of Chennai, is a mainstream visitor goal.