Cairo, Arabic Al-Qāhirah (“The Victorious”), city, capital of Egypt, and one of the biggest urban communities in Africa. Cairo has represented over 1,000 years on a similar site on the banks of the Nile, basically on the eastern shore, exactly 500 miles (800 km) downstream from the Aswān High Dam. Situated in the upper east of the nation, Cairo is the passage to the Nile delta, where the lower Nile isolates into the Rosetta and Damietta branches. Metropolitan Cairo is comprised of the Cairo muḥāfazah (governorate), just as different locale, some of which have a place with neighboring governorates, for example, Al-Jīzah and Qalūbiyyah. Zone governorate, 83 square miles (214 square km). Pop. (2006) governorate, 7,786,640; (2005 est.) urban agglom., 11,128,000.
Cairo is a position of physical difference. Along the well-watered shoreline, rich vegetation imparts the scene to tall high rises. In the more seasoned inland quarters toward the east, be that as it may, underneath the lower regions of the Eastern Desert and the rough projections of the Muqaṭṭam Hills and the Al-Jabal al-Aḥmar (Arabic: Red Mountain), tans and ochres are the overwhelming shades of land and structures.
The city compares antiquated and new, East and West. The Pyramids of Giza, close Memphis, remain at the southwestern edge of the city, and a pillar in the upper east denotes the site of Heliopolis, where Plato once examined; present day milestones of Western-style skyscraper lodgings and loft structures neglect the Nile River. Between these boundaries are other engineering landmarks, dating from Roman, Arab, and Turkish occasions. Notwithstanding retail establishments, films, lodgings, and town houses, Cairo contains an enormous working bazaar and a broad, semi-walled medieval city invested with in excess of 400 enlisted notable landmarks—including mosques, tombs, and monstrous stone doors—dating to 130 CE.