Bucharest, Romanian București, city and region, the financial, managerial, and social focus of Romania. It lies amidst the Romanian plain, on the banks of the Dâmbovița, a little northern tributary of the Danube.
Albeit archeological unearthings have uncovered proof of settlements going back to the Neolithic Period, the principal composed appearance of the name București dates from 1459, when it was recorded in a marked report of Vlad III (the Impaler), the leader of Walachia. Vlad III manufactured the stronghold of Bucharest—the first of a large number—with the point of keeping down the Turks who were undermining the presence of the Walachian state.
Under the Ottoman suzerainty that was in the long run set up, Bucharest grew quickly as the principle financial focal point of Walachia, turning into the capital in 1659. The names of certain boulevards—Strada Blănarilor (“Furriers’ Lane”), Strada Șelarilor (“Saddlemakers’ Lane”), Strada Șepcarilor (“Capmakers’ Lane”)— vouch for the rise of society associations, and, during the rule (1688–1714) of Prince Constantin Brâncoveanu, enormous lanes were assembled.
After 1716, government was no longer in the hands of local rulers yet was controlled rather by Phanariotes (i.e., Greeks starting in the Phanar region of Constantinople). In 1821 Bucharest was the focal point of a mainstream uprising, driven by the Walachian national legend Tudor Vladimirescu, which finished Phanariote rule. Once more, in 1848 and 1859, municipal agitation in the city had an influence in achieving the association of Walachia and Moldavia, followed in 1862 by the announcement of Bucharest as the capital of the Romanian state. These occasions, combined with a land change in 1864 and the last accomplishment of national autonomy in the war of 1877–78, gave a solid driving force to the financial improvement of both the nation and its capital city.
After World War I, Bucharest reinforced its situation as the most significant city of an enormously expanded nation. Further development occurred after World War II, and, following the nationalization of business and industry starting in 1948, this development was portrayed by enormous scale ventures and a checked structural consistency.
The cutting edge city is described by various squares from which avenues and streets emanate. The two boss avenues, running generally parallel through the focal point of the city, are Calea Victoriei and Bulevardul Magheru. Bulevardul Unirii, in the past called, under socialism, the “Street of the Victory of Socialism,” was incomprehensibly extended during the 1980s under the despot Nicolae Ceaușescu and was flanked by such structures as the palatial marble House of the People (Casa Poporului, presently the Palace of the Parliament). Around 25,000 sections of land (10,000 hectares) of old Bucharest were demolished to prepare for the new castle and amazing lane.
Republic Square—with the royal residence corridor and the authentic Crețulescu Church (1722)— is a standout amongst the most wonderful squares of the city. It is connected to Revolution Square (some time ago Palace Square), which is encompassed by a monumental gathering of authoritative, political, and social structures including the Romanian Athenaeum, remarkable for its segmented exterior, and the previous regal royal residence (presently the National Art Museum).
The city has an enormous number of houses of worship, normally little, in Byzantine style. Notwithstanding the Curtea Veche (Old Court) church (1559), the congregation of the previous Antim Monastery (1715) and Stavropoleos church (1724) are of significant building interest.
The most significant places for advanced education are the Polytechnical University of Bucharest (established 1818) and the University of Bucharest (established 1864 from organizations dating to 1694). Also, there are a few foundations in the two expressions and sciences, just as various research organizations. Bucharest has three focal libraries (the Library of the Romanian Academy, the National Library, and the Central University Library) and an enormous number of open library units.
A large number of the city’s theaters—for instance, the National Theater “I.L. Caragiale” and the Theater of Opera and Ballet of Romania—have long conventions. Bucharest is additionally the seat of a national philharmonic ensemble. Among the numerous exhibition halls are the Museum of the History of the City of Bucharest and the Art Museum of Romania, the last keeping up enormous accumulations of national, European, and East Asian workmanship. An exceptionally unique ethnographic accumulation, the Village Museum (1936), is comprised of laborer houses brought from different pieces of the nation.
Fabricates incorporate designing items, remarkably machine devices and rural hardware, just as electrical and car gear, transports, trolleybuses, and a wide assortment of different products, including shopper merchandise. The city is served by a universal airplane terminal at Otopeni and the littler Băneasa Airport. Pop. (2007 est.) 1,931,838.