British Museum, in London, complete national museum with especially extraordinary property in archaic exploration and ethnography. It is situated in the Bloomsbury locale of the ward of Camden.
Built up by demonstration of Parliament in 1753, the museum was initially founded on three accumulations: those of Sir Hans Sloane; Robert Harley, first baron of Oxford; and Sir Robert Cotton. The accumulations (which likewise incorporated a critical number of compositions and other library materials) were housed in Montagu House, Great Russell Street, and were opened to people in general in 1759. The museum’s present structure, planned in the Greek Revival style by Sir Robert Smirke, was based on the site of Montagu House in the period 1823–52 and has been the subject of a few consequent augmentations and modifications. Its well known round Reading Room was worked during the 1850s; underneath its copper arch toiled such researchers as Karl Marx, Virginia Woolf, Peter Kropotkin, and Thomas Carlyle. In 1881 the first regular history accumulations were moved to another structure in South Kensington to shape the Natural History Museum, and in 1973 the British Museum’s library was joined by a demonstration of Parliament with various different possessions to make the British Library. About a large portion of the national library’s possessions were kept at the museum until another library building was opened at St. Pancras in 1997.
After the books were expelled, the inside of the Reading Room was fixed and reestablished to its unique appearance. What’s more, the Great Court (planned by Sir Norman Foster), a glass-roofed structure encompassing the Reading Room, was fabricated. The Great Court and the revamped Reading Room opened to the general population in 2000. Likewise reestablished in time for the 250th commemoration of the museum’s foundation was the King’s Library (1823–27), the primary segment of the recently established British Museum to have been developed. It presently houses a lasting display on the Age of Enlightenment.
Among the British Museum’s most renowned possessions are the Elgin Marbles, comprising basically of compositional subtleties from the Parthenon at Athens; other Greek figures from the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus and from the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus; the Rosetta Stone, which gave the way to perusing old Egyptian pictographs; the Black Obelisk and other Assyrian relics from the royal residence and sanctuaries at Calah (present day Nimrūd) and Nineveh; impeccable gold, silver, and shell work from the antiquated Mesopotamian city of Ur; the supposed Portland Vase, a first century-CE appearance glass vessel found close Rome; treasure from the seventh century-CE send internment found at Sutton Hoo, Suffolk; and Chinese earthenware production from the Ming and different administrations.