Amman, Arabic ʿAmmān, scriptural Hebrew Rabbath Ammon, old Greek Philadelphia, capital and biggest city of Jordan. It is the living arrangement of the lord and the seat of government. The city is based on moving slopes at the eastern limit of the ʿAjlūn Mountains, on the little, halfway enduring Wadi ʿAmmān and its tributaries.
Amman’s focal point of settlement since forever has been the little high triangular level (present day Mount Al-Qalʿah) only north of the channel. Strengthened settlements have existed there since remote relic; the soonest remains are of the Chalcolithic Age (c. 4000–c. 3000 BCE). Later the city ended up capital of the Ammonites, a Semitic people habitually referenced in the Bible; the scriptural and present day names both follow back to “Ammon.” The “regal city” taken by King David’s general Joab (II Samuel 12:26) was most likely the acropolis on the level. Lord David sent Uriah the Hittite to his demise fighting before the dividers of the city with the goal that he may wed his better half, Bathsheba (II Samuel 11); the episode is likewise a piece of Muslim legends. The number of inhabitants in the Ammonite urban areas was quite diminished under King David. David’s child Solomon (prospered tenth century BCE) had Ammonite spouses in his collection of mistresses, one of whom turned into the mother of Rehoboam, Solomon’s successor as ruler of Judah.
Amman declined in later hundreds of years. In the third century BCE it was vanquished by Egypt’s King Ptolemy II Philadelphus (ruled 285–246 BCE), and he renamed it Philadelphia after himself; the name was held through Byzantine and Roman occasions. Philadelphia was a city of the Decapolis (Greek: “Ten Cities”), a Hellenistic group of the first century BCE–second century CE. In 106 CE it was incorporated into the Roman territory of Arabia and modified by the Romans; some fine destroys of their standard in this period have endure. With the happening to Christianity, it turned into a church district among the sees of Palestina Tertia subject to Bostra.
At the ascent of Islam, Amman was taken by the Arab general Yazīd ibn Abī Sufyān in 635 CE; by around 1300 it had totally vanished, from makes obscure students of history. In 1878 the Ottoman Turks resettled the site with Circassian displaced people from Russia; it remained a little town until after World War I.
After the war Transjordan turned out to be a piece of the Palestine command, yet the British government, as compulsory, successfully cut off it from western Palestine (1921) and set up a secured emirate of Transjordan, under the standard of ʿAbdullāh, child of Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī, at that point lord of the Hejaz and sharif of Mecca. Amman before long wound up capital of this new express; its advanced improvement started in this period and was quickened by Jordanian autonomy (1946). The city developed quickly; the urban territory got an enormous flood of Palestinian Arab outcasts after the first of the Arab-Israeli wars in 1948–49. A second, bigger flood of displaced people touched base after the Six-Day War of 1967, when Jordan lost every one of its domains west of the Jordan River to Israel. Political clash between the Jordanian government and insubordinate Palestinian guerrillas emitted into open common war in 1970 in the boulevards of Amman; in spite of the fact that the administration powers at long last won, the city was seriously harmed.
Amman is Jordan’s main business, money related, and global exchange focus. The regal castles are toward the east; the Parliament is in the western area. Boss enterprises incorporate nourishment and tobacco preparing, concrete generation, and the assembling of materials, paper items, plastics, and aluminum utensils. Amman is Jordan’s central transportation focus: two interstates lead west toward Jerusalem, and one of the city’s fundamental lanes turns into the way to Al-Salṭ, toward the northwest. Jordan’s fundamental north-south interstate, with its southern end at Al-ʿAqabah port, goes through the city. The cutting edge, well-adjusted Queen Alia International Airport is situated close to the tracks of the old Hejaz Railway, nearly 25 miles (40 km) south of the city. The University of Jordan (1962) and a few historical centers and libraries, including the National Library, are situated at Amman. Locales of intrigue incorporate the remaining parts of the old bastion, the bordering archeological gallery, and a huge, finely protected Roman amphitheater, which once situated 6,000. Pop. (2004 est.) 1,036,330.