Agra, city, western Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It lies in the Indo-Gangetic Plain on the Yamuna (Jumna) River around 125 miles (200 km) southeast of Delhi.
There was an early reference to an “Agravana” in the antiquated Sanskrit epic Mahabharata, and Ptolemy is said to have called the site “Agra.” The city was established by Sultan Sikandar of the Lodī tradition in the mid sixteenth century to be the capital of the Delhi sultanate. Agra additionally filled in as the Mughal capital during certain times of that realm. In the late eighteenth century the city fell progressively to the Jats, the Marathas, the Mughals, the leader of Gwalior, and, at long last, the British in 1803. It was the capital of Agra (later North-Western) territory from 1833 to 1868 and was one of the fundamental focuses of the Indian Mutiny (1857–58).
Agra is best known for the Taj Mahal (seventeenth century), assigned an UNESCO World Heritage site in 1983. A mind boggling tomb, the Taj Mahal is frequently viewed as the world’s best case of Mughal engineering. The Mughal ruler Shah Jahān fabricated it for his preferred spouse, Mumtāz Maḥal, in the mid-seventeenth century. Agra Fort (sixteenth century), called the Red Fort for its huge red sandstone dividers, was worked by the ruler Akbar; it contains the Pearl Mosque (Moti Masjid; seventeenth century), built of white marble, and a castle, the Jahangiri Mahal. The fortification was likewise assigned a World Heritage site in 1983.
Agra is a noteworthy street and rail intersection and a business and modern focus known for its cowhide products, cut stone, and handwoven floor coverings. The travel industry is a main consideration in the city’s economy. The city is the seat of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University (in the past Agra University), established in 1927. Suburbia of Agra contain the state mental medical clinic and Dayalbagh, a province of the Radha Soami Satsang religious group (established in the city in 1861).
Numerous religious and social celebrations are held in Agra. Janamashtami remembers the birthday of Lord Krishna. The yearly Taj Mahotsav, a 10-day expressions, specialties, and music jamboree, as a rule in February, is held in Shilpagram, an artworks town near the Taj Mahal.
The area around Agra comprises for the most part of a level plain, with slopes in the outrageous southwest. The area is watered by the Yamuna River and the Agra Canal. Millet, grain, wheat, and cotton are among the yields developed. The left Mughal city of Fatehpur Sikri is around 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Agra city. Pop. (2001) city, 1,275,134; urban agglom., 1,331,339; (2011) city, 1,585,704; urban agglom., 1,760,285.